Cardinals (Cardinalidae)

Yellow-shouldered Grosbeak (Parkerthraustes humeralis) - HBW 16, p. 413

French: Cardinal à épaulettes German: Gelbschulterkardinal Spanish: Picogrueso Humeral

Taxonomy: Pitylus (Caryothraustes) humeralis Lawrence, 1867, “Bogotá, Colombia” (trade skins of unknown provenance).
Relationships uncertain; has been suggested as belonging in tanager family (Thraupidae), but true taxonomic position not known. Formerly placed in genus Caryothraustes, but differs significantly in morphology (e.g. bill shape, notched tail), plumage (including sexual dimorphism) and behaviour (quiet, inconspicuous, and solitary or in pairs), as well as genetically; subsequently placed in its own monotypic genus. Taxonomic status of undescribed form from Ecuador as yet unclear. Monotypic.

Distribution: Extreme S Colombia (E slope of Andes in Caquetá and Putumayo), E Ecuador (E slope from W Sucumbíos and W Napo S to Morona-Santiago), E Peru (Amazonas and Loreto S to Madre de Dios and N Puno), SW & C Brazil (S Amazonas and Rondônia E to S Pará and NW Mato Grosso) and N Bolivia (La Paz and Cochabamba).

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