Terns (Sternidae)

Whiskered Tern (Chlidonias hybridus) - HBW 3, p. 663

French: Guifette moustac German: Weißbart-Seeschwalbe Spanish: Fumarel Cariblanco

Taxonomy: Sterna hybrida Pallas, 1811, southern Volga, Russia.
Genus sometimes merged into Sterna. Sterna albostriata sometimes considered a race of C. hybridus, but morphology and ecology more typical of Sterna. Race swinhoei may be inseparable from javanicus; proposed race leggei included in latter. All Eurasian populations often lumped in nominate hybridus. Six subspecies normally recognized.

Subspecies and Distribution:

  • hybridus (Pallas, 1811) - SW & C Europe through W Russia, Middle East and Transcaspia to SC & E Kazakhstan; winters mainly in Africa and also SW Asia.
  • swinhoei (Mathews, 1912) - Transbaikalia, E China and Taiwan.
  • indicus (Stephens, 1826) - E Iran and Pakistan to N India.

     See all 6 subspecies
  • hybridus (Pallas, 1811) - SW & C Europe through W Russia, Middle East and Transcaspia to SC & E Kazakhstan; winters mainly in Africa and also SW Asia.
  • swinhoei (Mathews, 1912) - Transbaikalia, E China and Taiwan.
  • indicus (Stephens, 1826) - E Iran and Pakistan to N India.
  • javanicus (Horsfield, 1821) - NE India and probably Sri Lanka; winters Malaysia to Indonesia.
  • sclateri (Mathews & Iredale, 1912) - Kenya to South Africa and Madagascar.
  • fluviatilis (Gould, 1843) - Australia; migrates to New Guinea and Moluccas.