Cardinals (Cardinalidae)

Vermilion Cardinal (Cardinalis phoeniceus) - HBW 16, p. 409

French: Cardinal vermillon German: Purpurkardinal Spanish: Cardenal de La Guajira
Other common names: Venezuelan (Scarlet) Cardinal

Taxonomy: Cardinalis phoeniceus Bonaparte, 1838, “the country south of the Bay of Honduras”; error = north Venezuela.
Has in the past been placed in separate genus, variously Richmondena and Pyrrhuloxia. Forms a superspecies with C. cardinalis; relationship of these two to C. sinuatus the subject of varying opinions. Race robinsoni was proposed for birds of Margarita I, but all claimed differences fall within range of variation of mainland birds, except perhaps the normally shorter crest. Monotypic.

Distribution: Extreme N Colombia (Guajira Peninsula) and N Venezuela (NW Zulia E through Falcón to SE Lara; NE Anzoátegui E to Sucre, including Margarita I).