Woodpeckers (Picidae)

Red-stained Woodpecker (Veniliornis affinis) - HBW 7, p. 502

French: Pic affin German: Blutflügelspecht Spanish: Carpintero Teñido

Taxonomy: Picus affinis Swainson, 1821, Bahia, Brazil.
Forms a superspecies with V. kirkii, V. chocoensis, V. cassini and V. maculifrons. Has often been treated as conspecific with second, but differences exist in plumage, habitat choice and, reputedly, vocalizations. Sometimes believed to be conspecific with third of those species; study needed of circumstances in apparent small range of overlap. Races intergrade to large extent; specimen from E Colombia described as a separate race, “caquetanus”, but considered to represent subadult of orenocensis. Four subspecies recognized.

Subspecies and Distribution:

  • orenocensis Berlepsch & Hartert, 1902 - SE Colombia, S Venezuela and N Brazil.
  • hilaris (Cabanis & Heine, 1863) - E Ecuador, E Peru and W Brazil S to N Bolivia and W Mato Grosso.
  • ruficeps (Spix, 1824) - C & NE Brazil S to Mato Grosso.
  • affinis (Swainson, 1821) - E Brazil (Alagoas and E Bahia).