Ovenbirds (Furnariidae)

Plain Xenops (Xenops minutus) - HBW 8, p. 355

French: Sittine brune German: Braunbauch-Baumspäher Spanish: Picolezna Menudo

Taxonomy: Turdus minutus Sparrman, 1788, no locality = Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Smaller and pale-throated nominate race distinctive, possibly a separate species from others. Apparent geographical variation in song requires further study; several species may be involved. Thorough analysis may reveal that variation in Central America is clinal; proposed race cayoensis (from Belize) considered not diagnosable; Honduran populations of mexicanus approach ridgwayi in most characters, and latter is very like littoralis. Sight records from NW Peru (Tumbes) presumed to refer to last-mentioned race. Race remoratus intergrades with ruficaudus.. View all taxonomy...

Taxonomy: Turdus minutus Sparrman, 1788, no locality = Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Smaller and pale-throated nominate race distinctive, possibly a separate species from others. Apparent geographical variation in song requires further study; several species may be involved. Thorough analysis may reveal that variation in Central America is clinal; proposed race cayoensis (from Belize) considered not diagnosable; Honduran populations of mexicanus approach ridgwayi in most characters, and latter is very like littoralis. Sight records from NW Peru (Tumbes) presumed to refer to last-mentioned race. Race remoratus intergrades with ruficaudus in S Venezuela (R Casiquiare region). Ten subspecies tentatively recognized.

Subspecies and Distribution:

  • mexicanus P. L. Sclater, 1857 - S Mexico (from Veracruz) S to Honduras.
  • ridgwayi Hartert & Goodson, 1917 - Nicaragua S to C Panama.
  • littoralis P. L. Sclater, 1862 - E Panama (Darién) and N Colombia (E to Cauca and Magdalena valleys) S to W Ecuador and extreme NW Peru (Tumbes).

     See all 10 subspecies
  • mexicanus P. L. Sclater, 1857 - S Mexico (from Veracruz) S to Honduras.
  • ridgwayi Hartert & Goodson, 1917 - Nicaragua S to C Panama.
  • littoralis P. L. Sclater, 1862 - E Panama (Darién) and N Colombia (E to Cauca and Magdalena valleys) S to W Ecuador and extreme NW Peru (Tumbes).
  • olivaceus Aveledo & Pons, 1952 - Perijá Mts of NE Colombia and NW Venezuela.
  • neglectus Todd, 1913 - NE Colombia (S to Cundinamarca) and NW Venezuela (E to Miranda).
  • remoratus J. T. Zimmer, 1935 - E Colombia (E from Meta and Caquetá), SW Venezuela (SW Amazonas) and NW Brazil (NW Amazonas).
  • ruficaudus (Vieillot, 1816) - E Colombia (Vichada), S & E Venezuela (Amazonas and Bolívar E to Paria Peninsula), the Guianas and N Brazil (E of R Negro).
  • obsoletus J. T. Zimmer, 1924 - E Ecuador, E Peru, W Brazil (S of R Amazon, E to R Madeira) and N Bolivia (S to N Santa Cruz).
  • genibarbis Illiger, 1811 - C Brazil (R Madeira E to Piauí, S to S Mato Grosso and N Goiás).
  • minutus (Sparrman, 1788) - E & SE Brazil (Pernambuco S to Santa Catarina), E Paraguay (E from Canendiyú, Caaguazú) and NE Argentina (Misiones).