Finches (Fringillidae)

Pine Siskin (Carduelis pinus) - HBW 15, p. 548

French: Tarin des pins German: Fichtenzeisig Spanish: Jilguero de los Pinos

Taxonomy: Fringilla pinus A. Wilson, 1810, Bush-hill, near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
This species and C. spinus and C. atriceps have been thought to form a superspecies. Recent phylogenetic analysis indicates that first two, at least, are only distantly related to the South American group of siskins, and has recently been suggested that they be separated in genus Spinus, but comprehensive review is required of all species currently included within present genus in order to determine true relationships. Race perplexa hybridizes with C. atriceps, progeny showing intermediate characters (but having bill of present species); the two may be consp.. View all taxonomy...

Taxonomy: Fringilla pinus A. Wilson, 1810, Bush-hill, near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
This species and C. spinus and C. atriceps have been thought to form a superspecies. Recent phylogenetic analysis indicates that first two, at least, are only distantly related to the South American group of siskins, and has recently been suggested that they be separated in genus Spinus, but comprehensive review is required of all species currently included within present genus in order to determine true relationships. Race perplexa hybridizes with C. atriceps, progeny showing intermediate characters (but having bill of present species); the two may be conspecific, but extent of reproductive isolation requires further research. Has also hybridized with Loxia curvirostra. Geographical variation largely clinal; review of races probably desirable. Three subspecies recognized.

Subspecies and Distribution:

  • pinus ( A. Wilson, 1810) - breeds CS & SE Alaska, Canada (S from S Yukon, C Manitoba and C Ontario, E to C & S Quebec and Newfoundland) and W & NE USA; non-breeding S to N & EC Mexico.
  • macroptera ( Bonaparte, 1850) - N Baja California and NW & C Mexico (E to Veracruz).
  • perplexa ( van Rossem, 1938) - S Mexico (N & C Chiapas) and W Guatemala.