Finches (Fringillidae)

Pine Grosbeak (Pinicola enucleator) - HBW 15, p. 599

French: Durbec des sapins German: Hakengimpel Spanish: Camachuelo Picogrueso
Other common names: Pine Rosefinch

Taxonomy: Loxia enucleator Linnaeus, 1758, Sweden.
Despite some morphological similarities to Carpodacus, bill structure and mitochondrial DNA indicate closer relationship to Pyrrhula. Proposed North American races alascensis (described from Nushagak, in Alaska) and eschatosa (from Harry's River, in Newfoundland) considered synonymous with leucura. Nine subspecies recognized.

Subspecies and Distribution:

  • enucleator ( Linnaeus, 1758) - breeds from Scandinavia (S Norway and C & N Sweden) E to C Siberia; winters S to S Sweden and SW Siberia.
  • pacata Bangs, 1913 - breeds E Siberia (E of R Yenisey and Sayan Mts) E to Kolyma Basin and Sea of Okhotsk, S to C Altai, NE Kazakhstan, N Mongolia and Stanovoy Mts; winters S to NE China (Heilongjiang and Liaoning).
  • kamtschatkensis ( Dybowski, 1883) - breeds NE Russia (Anadyrland S to N Sea of Okhotsk and Kamchatka); winters S to NE China (Heilongjiang & Liaoning).

     See all 9 subspecies
  • enucleator ( Linnaeus, 1758) - breeds from Scandinavia (S Norway and C & N Sweden) E to C Siberia; winters S to S Sweden and SW Siberia.
  • pacata Bangs, 1913 - breeds E Siberia (E of R Yenisey and Sayan Mts) E to Kolyma Basin and Sea of Okhotsk, S to C Altai, NE Kazakhstan, N Mongolia and Stanovoy Mts; winters S to NE China (Heilongjiang and Liaoning).
  • kamtschatkensis ( Dybowski, 1883) - breeds NE Russia (Anadyrland S to N Sea of Okhotsk and Kamchatka); winters S to NE China (Heilongjiang & Liaoning).
  • sakhalinensis Buturlin, 1915 - Sakhalin I, Kuril Is and N Japan (Hokkaido).
  • flammula Homeyer, 1880 - breeds Alaska Peninsula and Kodiak I S along coast to W Canada (NW British Columbia); winters S to C British Columbia, occasionally to Vancouver I.
  • leucura ( Statius Müller, 1776) - breeds W & C Alaska, and in broad band E through C Canada to Quebec, Newfoundland and Nova Scotia; winters S to S Canada and NE USA.
  • carlottae A. C. Brooks, 1922 - Queen Charlotte Is, off W Canada.
  • montana Ridgway, 1898 - SW Canada (N British Columbia) S to WC USA (S to E Arizona and N & W New Mexico).
  • californica Price, 1897 - E California (Sierra Nevada).