Tanagers (Thraupidae)

Orange-bellied Euphonia (Euphonia xanthogaster) - HBW 16, p. 295

French: Organiste à ventre orange German: Gelbbauchorganist Spanish: Eufonia Ventrinaranja
Other common names: Black-throated Euphonia (“E. vittata”)

Taxonomy: E.[uphone] xanthogaster Sundevall, 1834, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Recent molecular-genetic analysis indicates that genus belongs in family Fringillidae. May form a superspecies with E. anneae. Described taxon E. vittata believed to have been a hybrid between present species and E. pectoralis. Nominate race, geographically remote from all others, may be better kept apart as a monoptypic species; among other races, geographical differences in voice, in particular of W Amazonian dilutior and brunneifrons when compared with Andean races, suggest that more than a single species may be involved; in contrast, proposed race lecr.. View all taxonomy...

Taxonomy: E.[uphone] xanthogaster Sundevall, 1834, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Recent molecular-genetic analysis indicates that genus belongs in family Fringillidae. May form a superspecies with E. anneae. Described taxon E. vittata believed to have been a hybrid between present species and E. pectoralis. Nominate race, geographically remote from all others, may be better kept apart as a monoptypic species; among other races, geographical differences in voice, in particular of W Amazonian dilutior and brunneifrons when compared with Andean races, suggest that more than a single species may be involved; in contrast, proposed race lecroyana (described from R Chiquito in Táchira, Venezuela) is better lumped with badissima due to minimal differences; several other races are poorly differentiated and seem barely recognizable; thorough taxonomic review required. Race oressinoma intergrades with badissima in N Colombia (W of Ocaña, in Norte de Santander). Eleven subspecies currently recognized.

Subspecies and Distribution:

  • chocoensis Hellmayr, 1911 - extreme E Panama (Cerro Pirre, Altos de Quía, Cerro Sapo and R Jaqué) and Pacific Colombia W of Andes (S from Chocó) S to NW Ecuador (N Esmeraldas, Imbabura).
  • quitensis (Nelson, 1912) - W Ecuador (S from Pichincha) and NW Peru.
  • exsul Berlepsch, 1912 - NE Colombia (Boyacá; N end of Sierra de Perijá), and N cordilleras of Venezuela from Carabobo E to Miranda (Cerro Negro) and N Monagas (Caripe).

     See all 11 subspecies
  • chocoensis Hellmayr, 1911 - extreme E Panama (Cerro Pirre, Altos de Quía, Cerro Sapo and R Jaqué) and Pacific Colombia W of Andes (S from Chocó) S to NW Ecuador (N Esmeraldas, Imbabura).
  • quitensis (Nelson, 1912) - W Ecuador (S from Pichincha) and NW Peru.
  • exsul Berlepsch, 1912 - NE Colombia (Boyacá; N end of Sierra de Perijá), and N cordilleras of Venezuela from Carabobo E to Miranda (Cerro Negro) and N Monagas (Caripe).
  • badissima Olson, 1981 - Perijá Mts (Colombia–Venezuela border) and Andes of Venezuela (Lara S to Táchira) and adjacent Colombia (Norte de Santander and Boyacá).
  • oressinoma Olson, 1981 - W & C Andes of Colombia (and once on W slope of E Andes in Santander).
  • brevirostris Bonaparte, 1851 - E Colombia (upper Magdalena Valley; generally E of Andes from Norte de Santander S to Meta) S to E Ecuador and E Peru (W of Ucayali Valley), E to S Venezuela, C Guyana and NW Brazil (R Uaupés, Tahuapunto).
  • dilutior (J. T. Zimmer, 1943) - SE Colombia and NE Peru (Ucayali Valley).
  • cyanonota Parkes, 1969 - W & C Brazil from R Juruá (João Pessoa; Lago Grande) and R Purús to R Tapajós.
  • brunneifrons Chapman, 1901 - SE Peru (Cuzco and Puno).
  • ruficeps d’Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837 - Bolivia (La Paz and Cochabamba).
  • xanthogaster (Sundevall, 1834) - coastal E Brazil (C Bahia S to C Rio de Janeiro).