Shrikes (Laniidae)

Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus) - HBW 13, p. 785

French: Pie-grièche migratrice German: Louisianawürger Spanish: Alcaudón Americano
Other common names: Migrant Shrike, Butcherbird

Taxonomy: Lanius ludovicianus Linnaeus, 1766, Louisiana, USA.
Forms a superspecies with L. excubitor, L. meridionalis and L. sphenocercus. Recent molecular-genetic studies suggest that present species is possibly closest to L. meridionalis, but further research required. Races intergrade, making subspecific delimitation difficult. Other proposed races include, in USA, gambeli (described from Calaveras County, in EC California), nevadensis (Inyo County, in E California) and sonoriensis (Chiracahua Mts, in SE Arizona), all subsumed in excubitorides; and miamensis (Cutler, Miami-Dade .. View all taxonomy...

Taxonomy: Lanius ludovicianus Linnaeus, 1766, Louisiana, USA.
Forms a superspecies with L. excubitor, L. meridionalis and L. sphenocercus. Recent molecular-genetic studies suggest that present species is possibly closest to L. meridionalis, but further research required. Races intergrade, making subspecific delimitation difficult. Other proposed races include, in USA, gambeli (described from Calaveras County, in EC California), nevadensis (Inyo County, in E California) and sonoriensis (Chiracahua Mts, in SE Arizona), all subsumed in excubitorides; and miamensis (Cutler, Miami-Dade County, in SE Florida), merged with nominate; and, in Mexico, nelsoni (S Baja California), which is synonymized with mexicanus. Seven subspecies currently recognized.

Subspecies and Distribution:

  • excubitorides Swainson, 1832 - breeds SW Canada (S British Columbia, C Alberta, S Saskatchewan and SW Manitoba) S in W USA to E Washington, extreme S Oregon and S Idaho and to California, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas (except NE), E to North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas and W Oklahoma; non-breeding in S parts of range and S to W Mexico (including Baja California).
  • grinnelli Oberholser, 1919 - extreme S California (S from San Diego County) S to extreme NW Mexico (C Baja California Norte).
  • anthonyi Mearns, 1898 - Channel Is (Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, Santa Catalina), off S California.

     See all 7 subspecies
  • excubitorides Swainson, 1832 - breeds SW Canada (S British Columbia, C Alberta, S Saskatchewan and SW Manitoba) S in W USA to E Washington, extreme S Oregon and S Idaho and to California, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas (except NE), E to North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas and W Oklahoma; non-breeding in S parts of range and S to W Mexico (including Baja California).
  • grinnelli Oberholser, 1919 - extreme S California (S from San Diego County) S to extreme NW Mexico (C Baja California Norte).
  • anthonyi Mearns, 1898 - Channel Is (Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, Santa Catalina), off S California.
  • mearnsi Ridgway, 1903 - San Clemente I, off S California.
  • migrans Palmer, 1898 - breeds SE Canada (S Ontario, S Quebec, S Michigan) and, in USA, from E edge of Great Plains (E from Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma and NE Texas) E to New York and Atlantic coast, and S into Mississippi Valley to N Mississippi, Arkansas and N Louisiana; non-breeding in S of range and S to Gulf Coast states and E coast of Mexico.
  • ludovicianus Linnaeus, 1766 - E & S USA (E of Appalachian Mts) from North Carolina S to Gulf Coast states and S tip of Florida.
  • mexicanus C. L. Brehm, 1854 - W & C Mexico (including S Baja California) S to Oaxaca.