Woodpeckers (Picidae)

Ladder-backed Woodpecker (Picoides scalaris) - HBW 7, p. 490

French: Pic arlequin German: Texasspecht Spanish: Pico Mexicano

Taxonomy: Picus scalaris Wagler, 1829, central Veracruz, Mexico.
Forms a superspecies with P. nuttallii, with which it occasionally hybridizes; also closely related to P. pubescens. Has possibly interbred also with P. villosus. Considerable individual and some clinal variation; described races centrophilus (W Mexico), azelus (S Mexico), symplectus (SE Colorado and W Oklahoma S to NE Mexico), giraudi (EC Mexico), ridgwayi (SE Veracruz) and percus (Chiapas) regarded as indistinguishable. Eight subspecies recognized.

Subspecies and Distribution:

  • cactophilus (Oberholser, 1911) - SW USA, from SE California, S Nevada, SW Utah, SE Colorado, W Oklahoma and W Texas, S to NE Baja California and S in C Mexico to Michoacán and Puebla.
  • eremicus (Oberholser, 1911) - N Baja California.
  • lucasanus (Baird, 1859) - S Baja California.

     See all 8 subspecies
  • cactophilus (Oberholser, 1911) - SW USA, from SE California, S Nevada, SW Utah, SE Colorado, W Oklahoma and W Texas, S to NE Baja California and S in C Mexico to Michoacán and Puebla.
  • eremicus (Oberholser, 1911) - N Baja California.
  • lucasanus (Baird, 1859) - S Baja California.
  • sinaloensis (Ridgway, 1887) - coastal W Mexico from S Sonora S to Guerrero, SW Puebla and C Oaxaca.
  • graysoni (Baird, 1874) - Tres Marías Is, off W Mexico.
  • scalaris (Wagler, 1829) - Veracruz and Chiapas.
  • parvus (Cabot, 1845) - N Yucatán Peninsula, including Cozumel I and Holbox I.
  • leucoptilurus (Oberholser, 1911) - Belize, Guatemala and El Salvador to NE Nicaragua.