Woodpeckers (Picidae)

Hairy Woodpecker (Picoides villosus) - HBW 7, p. 492

French: Pic chevelu German: Haarspecht Spanish: Pico Velloso

Taxonomy: Picus villosus Linnaeus, 1766, New Jersey, USA.
Related to P. stricklandi and P. albolarvatus, with which it forms a relatively closely related cluster of species that is linked with P. borealis. May have interbred with P. scalaris. Molecular-genetic analysis suggests very close relationship to Veniliornis fumigatus, perhaps to extent that the two could justifiably be treated as congeneric; further study needed. Spectacular variation in size, coloration and plumage pattern is largely clinal in nature, associated with temperature and moisture, with races intergrading in many areas. A large number of.. View all taxonomy...

Taxonomy: Picus villosus Linnaeus, 1766, New Jersey, USA.
Related to P. stricklandi and P. albolarvatus, with which it forms a relatively closely related cluster of species that is linked with P. borealis. May have interbred with P. scalaris. Molecular-genetic analysis suggests very close relationship to Veniliornis fumigatus, perhaps to extent that the two could justifiably be treated as congeneric; further study needed. Spectacular variation in size, coloration and plumage pattern is largely clinal in nature, associated with temperature and moisture, with races intergrading in many areas. A large number of races have been described, of which many are unsustainable: monticola (Rocky Mts from British Columbia to New Mexico), leucothorectis (mountains of SW USA), scrippsae (N Baja California), intermedius (E Mexico), parvulus (N El Salvador to N & W Honduras), fumeus (highlands of S Honduras and N Nicaragua), extimus (highlands of Costa Rica and Panama). Fourteen subspecies currently recognized.

Subspecies and Distribution:

  • septentrionalis (Nuttall, 1840) - from tree-line in Alaska E across S Canada to Ontario, and S to SC British Columbia, Colorado, N New Mexico, Montana and North Dakota.
  • villosus (Linnaeus, 1766) - from E North Dakota E to S Quebec and Nova Scotia, and S to E Colorado, C Texas, Missouri (Ozark Plateau) and N Virginia.
  • terraenovae (Batchelder, 1908) - Newfoundland.

     See all 14 subspecies
  • septentrionalis (Nuttall, 1840) - from tree-line in Alaska E across S Canada to Ontario, and S to SC British Columbia, Colorado, N New Mexico, Montana and North Dakota.
  • villosus (Linnaeus, 1766) - from E North Dakota E to S Quebec and Nova Scotia, and S to E Colorado, C Texas, Missouri (Ozark Plateau) and N Virginia.
  • terraenovae (Batchelder, 1908) - Newfoundland.
  • sitkensis (Swarth, 1911) - coast of SE Alaska and N British Columbia.
  • picoideus (Osgood, 1901) - Queen Charlotte Is, off British Columbia.
  • harrisi (Audubon, 1838) - coastal region from S British Columbia to NW California.
  • audubonii (Swainson, 1832) - from E Texas, S Illinois and SE Virginia S to Gulf coast.
  • hyloscopus (Cabanis & Heine, 1863) - W California S to N Baja California.
  • orius (Oberholser, 1911) - Cascade Mts in British Columbia S through C Oregon to SE California, C Arizona, New Mexico and extreme W Texas.
  • icastus (Oberholser, 1911) - SE Arizona and SW New Mexico S in W Mexico to Jalisco.
  • jardinii (Malherbe, 1845) - C Mexico from San Luis Potosí, Tamaulipas and Veracruz to Jalisco, Guerrero and Oaxaca.
  • sanctorum (Nelson, 1897) - S Mexico (Chiapas) and Guatemala SE to W Panama.
  • piger (G. M. Allen, 1905) - N Bahamas (Grand Bahama, Abaco, Mores).
  • maynardi (Ridgway, 1887) - S Bahamas (Andros, New Providence).