Kinglets and Firecrests (Regulidae)

Golden-crowned Kinglet (Regulus satrapa) - HBW 11, p. 347

French: Roitelet à couronne dorée German: Indianergoldhähnchen Spanish: Reyezuelo Sátrapa

Taxonomy: Regulus satrapa M. H. C. Lichtenstein, 1823, North America.
Traditionally considered closely related to, or even conspecific with, R. ignicapilla on basis of morphological features; molecular and acoustic data, however, suggest a sister-species relationship with R. regulus, but highly differentiated from latter in vocalizations and genetic markers. Race clarus weakly differentiated from aztecus, and possibly better merged with it. Described race amoenus (ranging from S Alaska and S Yukon S through interior mountains to S California, Utah and Colorado) tentatively synonymized with apache. Five subspecies recogn.. View all taxonomy...

Taxonomy: Regulus satrapa M. H. C. Lichtenstein, 1823, North America.
Traditionally considered closely related to, or even conspecific with, R. ignicapilla on basis of morphological features; molecular and acoustic data, however, suggest a sister-species relationship with R. regulus, but highly differentiated from latter in vocalizations and genetic markers. Race clarus weakly differentiated from aztecus, and possibly better merged with it. Described race amoenus (ranging from S Alaska and S Yukon S through interior mountains to S California, Utah and Colorado) tentatively synonymized with apache. Five subspecies recognized.

Subspecies and Distribution:

  • olivaceus S. F. Baird, 1864 - breeds SE Alaska and extreme SW Canada (coastal British Columbia) S in coastal W USA to Oregon; non-breeding also S to S California.
  • apache Jenks, 1936 - breeds interior Alaska and SW Canada (S Yukon) S through Cascades and Rocky Mts to SW USA (S to S California and New Mexico); non-breeding also S to N Mexico.
  • satrapa M. H. C. Lichtenstein, 1823 - S Canada (except in W) and NE & E USA (S in Appalachian Mts to Tennessee).

     See all 5 subspecies
  • olivaceus S. F. Baird, 1864 - breeds SE Alaska and extreme SW Canada (coastal British Columbia) S in coastal W USA to Oregon; non-breeding also S to S California.
  • apache Jenks, 1936 - breeds interior Alaska and SW Canada (S Yukon) S through Cascades and Rocky Mts to SW USA (S to S California and New Mexico); non-breeding also S to N Mexico.
  • satrapa M. H. C. Lichtenstein, 1823 - S Canada (except in W) and NE & E USA (S in Appalachian Mts to Tennessee).
  • aztecus Lawrence, 1887 - SC Mexico (mountains from Michoacán S to Oaxaca).
  • clarus Dearborn, 1907 - mountains of S Mexico (Chiapas) and Guatemala.