Cardinals (Cardinalidae)

Golden-billed Saltator (Saltator aurantiirostris) - HBW 16, p. 418

French: Saltator à bec orange German: Goldschnabelsaltator Spanish: Pepitero Piquigualdo

Taxonomy: Saltator aurantiirostris Vieillot, 1817, “Paraguay”; probably Corrientes, Argentina.
Affiliations of genus uncertain; recent molecular-genetic analyses indicate that it does not belong with present family, and may be better placed with tanagers (Thraupidae). Present species sometimes treated as conspecific with S. nigriceps, but appears to differ vocally. Also closely allied to S. maxillosus; interbreeding with latter has been reported, but recent studies state that there is little or no interbreeding. Race parkesi intergrades with nominate in Argentina. Six subspecies recognized.

Subspecies and Distribution:

  • iteratus Chapman, 1927 - N Peru (temperate zones of Cajamarca, Amazones, Libertad and Ancash).
  • albociliaris (R. A. Philippi [Krumwiede] & Landbeck, 1861) - C & S Peru (subtropical and temperate zones from Ancash and Huánuco S to Puno and Tacna) and extreme N Chile (Arica).
  • hellmayri J. Bond & Meyer de Schauensee, 1939 - Bolivia from La Paz and Cochabamba S to SE Potosí and N Tarija.

     See all 6 subspecies
  • iteratus Chapman, 1927 - N Peru (temperate zones of Cajamarca, Amazones, Libertad and Ancash).
  • albociliaris (R. A. Philippi [Krumwiede] & Landbeck, 1861) - C & S Peru (subtropical and temperate zones from Ancash and Huánuco S to Puno and Tacna) and extreme N Chile (Arica).
  • hellmayri J. Bond & Meyer de Schauensee, 1939 - Bolivia from La Paz and Cochabamba S to SE Potosí and N Tarija.
  • aurantiirostris Vieillot, 1817 - Bolivia (S Tarija), N Argentina (S to Catamarca, Córdoba and Buenos Aires), E Paraguay and S Brazil (S Mato Grosso and N Rio Grande do Sul).
  • parkesi da Silva, 1990 - E Argentina (Entre Ríos), extreme SE Brazil (S Rio Grande do Sul) and Uruguay.
  • nasica Wetmore & J. L. Peters, 1922 - CW Argentina (La Rioja, San Juan, Mendoza and W La Pampa).