Tyrant-flycatchers (Tyrannidae)

Fork-tailed Flycatcher (Tyrannus savana) - HBW 9, p. 425

French: Tyran des savanes German: Gabelschwanz-Königstyrann Spanish: Tijereta Sabanera

Taxonomy: Tyrannus savana Vieillot, 1808, Surinam.
Closest relatives of genus may be Empidonomus and Tyrannopsis; recent molecular-sequence data indicate present genus is monophyletic and sister-group to clade that includes Empidonomus and Griseotyrannus; two main clades within genus, loosely corresponding to “tropical species assemblage” and combination of “W” & “E” species groups of earlier authors, but with some exceptions. Present species long considered closest relative of T. forficatus, mainly due to tail-streamers, and both previously separated in subgenus Muscivora (and earlier.. View all taxonomy...

Taxonomy: Tyrannus savana Vieillot, 1808, Surinam.
Closest relatives of genus may be Empidonomus and Tyrannopsis; recent molecular-sequence data indicate present genus is monophyletic and sister-group to clade that includes Empidonomus and Griseotyrannus; two main clades within genus, loosely corresponding to “tropical species assemblage” and combination of “W” & “E” species groups of earlier authors, but with some exceptions. Present species long considered closest relative of T. forficatus, mainly due to tail-streamers, and both previously separated in subgenus Muscivora (and earlier in genus Milvulus); affinity not supported by molecular-sequence data. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that it belongs to a clade within the “tropical species assemblage” that also includes T. albogularis and T. couchii, although relationships among these three species remain uncertain. Four subspecies currently recognized.

Subspecies and Distribution:

  • monachus Hartlaub, 1844 - S Mexico (C & S Veracruz, N Oaxaca, NE Chiapas, Tabasco, SW Campeche) S to Colombia (except N, but generally E of Andes S to Meta and Vichada) and much of Venezuela (E to Orinoco Delta, S to N Amazonas and N Bolívar, and several offshore islands); also S Surinam (Sipaliwini) and NC Brazil (Roraima, lower R Negro, perhaps Amapá).
  • sanctaemartae (J. T. Zimmer, 1937) - N Colombia (Caribbean coastal region and Santa Marta Mts area) and extreme NW Venezuela (NW Zulia).
  • circumdatus (J. T. Zimmer, 1937) - N Brazil in E Amazonas (occasionally W to Manaus) and Pará and Amapá (S bank R Amazonas, islands near Santarém, and both banks of R Tapajós).
  • savana Vieillot, 1808 - C, S & SE Brazil (Rondônia and S Mato Grosso E to Tocantins and S Piauí, S to Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janerio and Rio Grande do Sul), N & E Boliva, Paraguay, Argentina (S to Río Negro, occasionally to NE Chubut and even Patagonia) and Uruguay.