Finches (Fringillidae)

Eurasian Bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula) - HBW 15, p. 609

French: Bouvreuil pivoine German: Gimpel Spanish: Camachuelo Común
Other common names: Common/Northern Bullfinch; Baikal/Grey Bullfinch (cineracea); Grey-bellied/Oriental/Ussuri Rosefinch (griseiventris)

Taxonomy: Loxia Pyrrhula Linnaeus, 1758, Europe.
Previously considered conspecific with P. murina, but considerable differences in morphological characters. Races cineracea and griseiventris sometimes considered to represent two additional species, but intergrade with other races. Races rossikowi and caspica sometimes treated as synonyms of nominate, possibly with some justification, but further research on range of variation within nominate (and probably europoea) required. Nominate race intergrades over wide areas with europoea in SC Europe and with cassinii and griseiventris .. View all taxonomy...

Taxonomy: Loxia Pyrrhula Linnaeus, 1758, Europe.
Previously considered conspecific with P. murina, but considerable differences in morphological characters. Races cineracea and griseiventris sometimes considered to represent two additional species, but intergrade with other races. Races rossikowi and caspica sometimes treated as synonyms of nominate, possibly with some justification, but further research on range of variation within nominate (and probably europoea) required. Nominate race intergrades over wide areas with europoea in SC Europe and with cassinii and griseiventris in E Asia, populations of large and small individuals merging in somewhat clinal manner; several additional races proposed on basis of small differences in plumage tones of face, upperparts and underparts and in wing measurements, e.g. coccinea (described from Baden, in SW Germany), germanica (from Thuringia, in EC Germany) and paphlagoniae (from near Bolu, in NW Turkey), all synonymized with nominate, and roseacea (from Yokohama, in E Honshu, in Japan), treated as synonym of griseiventris. Some regional variation also within pileata: birds from Ireland paler than those in S England, and males in W & C Scotland slightly darker and females paler or greyer than corresponding sexes in C England. Nine subspecies currently recognized.

Subspecies and Distribution:

  • pileata W. MacGillivray, 1837 - British Is.
  • europoea Vieillot, 1816 - W & C Europe (W & C France E to Netherlands and W Denmark, S to Italy).
  • iberiae Voous, 1951 - SW France (Pyrenees) and mountains of N Portugal and N Spain.

     See all 9 subspecies
  • pileata W. MacGillivray, 1837 - British Is.
  • europoea Vieillot, 1816 - W & C Europe (W & C France E to Netherlands and W Denmark, S to Italy).
  • iberiae Voous, 1951 - SW France (Pyrenees) and mountains of N Portugal and N Spain.
  • pyrrhula ( Linnaeus, 1758) - N, SC & E Europe E across Siberia to Verkhoyansk Mts and Sea of Okhotsk, S to N Greece, C Romania and E through Ukraine to NE Kazakhstan, NW China (NW Xinjiang) and N Mongolia; winters S to S Europe, SW & C Asia.
  • rossikowi Derjugin & Bianchi, 1900 - N & SC Turkey, Caucasus (except SE) and NW Iran.
  • caspica Witherby, 1908 - Azerbaijan and N Iran.
  • cineracea Cabanis, 1872 - W, SC & E Siberia (R Ob, W Altai and N Sayan Mts E to Sea of Okhotsk and Japan Sea), NE Kazakhstan and N Mongolia, probably also NE China (NE Inner Mongolia and N Heilongjiang).
  • cassinii S. F. Baird, 1869 - breeds Russian Far East (W & N shores of Sea of Okhotsk, S Koryakland, Kamchatka and N Kuril Is); migrates S to SE Russia (Amurland and Ussuriland), Sakhalin I and NE China (Heilongjiang S to N Hebei).
  • griseiventris Lafresnaye, 1841 - Russian Far East (E Amurland and Ussuriland), Sakhalin I, C & S Kuril Is, and N Japan (Hokkaido and N Honshu); winters S to NE China (Heilongjiang S to Liaoning), Korea and C & S Japan.