New World Warblers (Parulidae)

Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas) - HBW 15, p. 771

French: Paruline masquée German: Weidengelbkehlchen Spanish: Mascarita Común
Other common names: Maryland Yellowthroat; Chapala Yellowthroat (chapalensis)

Taxonomy: Turdus Trichas Linnaeus, 1766, northern America = Charleston, South Carolina.
Forms a superspecies with G. beldingi and G. rostrata, presumably also including G. flavovelata; the four have sometimes been regarded as conspecific. Has hybridized with Oporornis philadelphia. Race chapalensis sometimes considered to represent a separate species. Geographical variation complex within huge range; up to 29 or more races have been described, many of these too poorly differentiated to warrant recognition. Recent work involving mitochondrial DNA suggests W and E groupings of present species may be closer to other congeners than to each other; f.. View all taxonomy...

Taxonomy: Turdus Trichas Linnaeus, 1766, northern America = Charleston, South Carolina.
Forms a superspecies with G. beldingi and G. rostrata, presumably also including G. flavovelata; the four have sometimes been regarded as conspecific. Has hybridized with Oporornis philadelphia. Race chapalensis sometimes considered to represent a separate species. Geographical variation complex within huge range; up to 29 or more races have been described, many of these too poorly differentiated to warrant recognition. Recent work involving mitochondrial DNA suggests W and E groupings of present species may be closer to other congeners than to each other; further study required. Proposed races yukonicola (described from Jarvis River, in SW Yukon) and brachidactylus (described from "N provinces" of USA) sometimes regarded as worthy of recognition, but presently treated as synonyms of, respectively, campicola and nominate; in Mexico, riparia (described from Tesia, on R Mayo, in S Sonora) synonymized with chryseola, but possibly merits recognition. Type locality previously listed as Maryland, but this was based on reference to a 1702 publication now shown to apply instead to Dendroica dominica. Thirteen subspecies currently recognized.

Subspecies and Distribution:

  • arizela Oberholser, 1899 - breeds Pacific coastal region from extreme SE Alaska S to C California; migrates to area from California S to NW Mexico (Baja California and N Sonora).
  • sinuosa Grinnell, 1901 - breeds San Francisco Bay area of California; in winter locally also along California coast, mainly to S of the bay.
  • scirpicola Grinnell, 1901 - extreme SW USA and adjacent NW Mexico (N Baja California and extreme NW Sonora).

     See all 13 subspecies
  • arizela Oberholser, 1899 - breeds Pacific coastal region from extreme SE Alaska S to C California; migrates to area from California S to NW Mexico (Baja California and N Sonora).
  • sinuosa Grinnell, 1901 - breeds San Francisco Bay area of California; in winter locally also along California coast, mainly to S of the bay.
  • scirpicola Grinnell, 1901 - extreme SW USA and adjacent NW Mexico (N Baja California and extreme NW Sonora).
  • campicola Behle & Aldrich, 1947 - breeds interior NW North America from SW Canada (S Yukon E to W Ontario) S in USA to Idaho and NW Nebraska; migrates to SW USA and N Mexico, at least.
  • occidentalis Brewster, 1883 - breeds in interior SW USA (S from E Oregon and Kansas); winters SW USA, W Mexico and Guatemala.
  • chryseola van Rossem, 1930 - SW USA (S Arizona E to W Texas) and N Mexico (S to S Sonora and Durango); non-breeding also slightly farther S.
  • trichas ( Linnaeus, 1766) - breeds SE Canada (WC Ontario E to Newfoundland and Nova Scotia) and S in USA to E Texas and SE Virginia (excluding SE coastal regions); migrates to wintering area from S USA S to Costa Rica (casually S to adjacent NW South America) and Caribbean.
  • typhicola Burleigh, 1934 - breeds SE USA coastal belt N of Florida and Gulf of Mexico coast; non-breeding also around Gulf coast S to E Mexico (Veracruz).
  • insperata Van Tyne, 1933 - S Texas (lower Rio Grande Valley S of Brownsville).
  • ignota Chapman, 1890 - coastal plain of S USA (SE Louisiana E to Florida).
  • modesta Nelson, 1900 - W coast of Mexico from C Sonora S to Colima.
  • melanops S. F. Baird, 1865 - C Mexico from Zacatecas and N Jalisco E to Veracruz and Oaxaca.
  • chapalensis Nelson, 1903 - L Chapala (E Jalisco), in SW Mexico.