Common Tern (Sterna hirundo) - HBW 3, p. 652
French: Sterne pierregarin
Spanish: Charrán Común
Taxonomy: Sterna Hirundo Linnaeus, 1758, Sweden.
In North America, genetic studies of populations in Minnesota and Wisconsin and ringing studies in NE USA reveal high degree of gene flow, despite colony site tenacity. C Asian minussensis often considered to be no more than a hybrid form between nominate hirundo and longipennis. Four subspecies normally recognized.
Subspecies and Distribution:
- hirundo Linnaeus, 1758 - North America to N South America, Atlantic islands, Europe, N Africa (Tunisia) and W Africa (Mauritania, Senegal, erratically Nigeria), through Middle East and Black and Caspian Seas to Yenisey Valley; winters S of Tropic of Cancer.
- minussensis Sushkin, 1925 - C Asia through Transbaikalia to N Mongolia and S Tibet; winters mainly N Indian Ocean.
- tibetana Saunders, 1876 - W Mongolia S to Kashmir, Tibet and Sichuan, at high altitudes; winters mostly E Indian Ocean.
- longipennis Nordmann, 1835 - NE Siberia S to NE China (C Heilongjiang to Inner Mongolia and Shanxi); winters SE Asia to Australia.
- Least Concern Enlarge map
VideosSee all 83 videos
Three youngs on the nest with adults around. Locality Île de Ré, Charente-Maritime, Poitou-Charentes, France (ssp hirundo)
herve jacob 29 June 2015 21 weeks ago 29 sec 5
Two immatures begging for food then an adulte arriving with a fish, then slow motion. Locality Île de Ré, Charente-Maritime, Poitou-Charentes, France (ssp hirundo )
herve jacob 29 June 2015 21 weeks ago 46 sec 5
A pair on the beach Locality Rocha Lagoon, Rocha Department, Uruguay
Martin Manassero 24 January 2013 2 years ago 51 sec 4.8
Three immatures then an individual going to defect out of the nest area. Locality Île de Ré, Charente-Maritime, Poitou-Charentes, France (ssp hirundo )
herve jacob 29 June 2015 21 weeks ago 40 sec 4.7
Two different pairs defending their territory. Locality Texel, North Holland Province, Netherlands
Yoel Jimenez 19 May 2012 3 years ago 35 sec 4.6
A chick on the ground being feed by an adult bird. Locality Parikkala, Southern Finland Province, Finland
Javier Ortas 24 July 2010 5 years ago 41 sec 4.6
PhotosSee all 142 photos
A bird flying with a small fish.
Locality Point Pelee National Park, Leamington, Ontario, Canada
Michel Lamarche 11 May 2009 5 years ago 4.9
Locality Zagreb County, Croatia (ssp hirundo)
spiljar 6 June 2011 50 weeks ago 4.8
adulto sobre un poste
Locality Riet Vell Reserve, Ebro Delta, Tarragona Province, Catalonia, Spain (ssp hirundo)
J. Barreda 27 June 2012 43 weeks ago 4.7
Adult S.h. longipennis flying, showing the long thin black bill
Locality Xianghai National Nature Reserve, Jilin, China (Northern) (ssp longipennis)
GunnarPettersson 11 May 2011 31 weeks ago 4.6
Locality Hua Hin, Prachuap Khiri Khan Province, Western Thailand, Thailand (ssp longipennis)
tombac 3 April 2013 18 weeks ago 4.5
Juvenile coming up from dive
Locality Varberg, Halland County, Sweden
GunnarPettersson 7 September 2006 29 weeks ago 4.5
SoundsSee all 7 recordings
Colony sounds Locality Siikalahti Wetland Nature Reserve, Parikkala, Southern Finland Province, Finland
Eetu Paljakka 5 June 2014 14 weeks ago 5
Voices of birds. Locality Axios Delta, Central Macedonia Region, Greece
Theo Mamais 20 April 2008 3 years ago 5
Flight calls, small flock (5 birds). Locality Saltfjärden, Kirkkonummi, Southern Finland Province, Finland
Eetu Paljakka 14 May 2015 28 weeks ago 4
Two birds flying together. Locality Essonne, Île-de-France, France
Julien Rochefort 5 July 2007 5 years ago 4
Birds calling while roosting on rocks with Crested Terns. Locality Western Treatment Plant, Werribee, Victoria, Australia
Nick Talbot 18 February 2013 2 years ago 2
3 terns in flight Locality Vårnäs Sund, Kirkkonummi, Southern Finland Province, Finland
Eetu Paljakka 19 April 2015 16 weeks ago 0