Common Tern (Sterna hirundo) - HBW 3, p. 652
French: Sterne pierregarin
Spanish: Charrán Común
Taxonomy: Sterna Hirundo Linnaeus, 1758, Sweden.
In North America, genetic studies of populations in Minnesota and Wisconsin and ringing studies in NE USA reveal high degree of gene flow, despite colony site tenacity. C Asian minussensis often considered to be no more than a hybrid form between nominate hirundo and longipennis. Four subspecies normally recognized.
Subspecies and Distribution:
- hirundo Linnaeus, 1758 - North America to N South America, Atlantic islands, Europe, N Africa (Tunisia) and W Africa (Mauritania, Senegal, erratically Nigeria), through Middle East and Black and Caspian Seas to Yenisey Valley; winters S of Tropic of Cancer.
- minussensis Sushkin, 1925 - C Asia through Transbaikalia to N Mongolia and S Tibet; winters mainly N Indian Ocean.
- tibetana Saunders, 1876 - W Mongolia S to Kashmir, Tibet and Sichuan, at high altitudes; winters mostly E Indian Ocean.
- longipennis Nordmann, 1835 - NE Siberia S to NE China (C Heilongjiang to Inner Mongolia and Shanxi); winters SE Asia to Australia.
- Least Concern Enlarge map
VideosSee all 77 videos
A pair on the beach Locality Rocha Lagoon, Rocha Department, Uruguay
Martin Manassero 24 January 2013 2 years ago 51 sec 4.8
Two different pairs defending their territory. Locality Texel, North Holland Province, Netherlands
Yoel Jimenez 19 May 2012 2 years ago 35 sec 4.6
A chick on the ground being feed by an adult bird. Locality Parikkala, Southern Finland Province, Finland
Javier Ortas 24 July 2010 4 years ago 41 sec 4.6
An adult bird eating a fish. Locality Parikkala, Southern Finland Province, Finland
Javier Ortas 24 July 2010 4 years ago 30 sec 4.5
A pair mating Locality Siikalahti Wetland Nature Reserve, Parikkala, Southern Finland Province, Finland (ssp hirundo)
herve jacob 5 June 2010 4 years ago 48 sec 4.5
A flock of around 25 individuals resting on the beach Locality Helgoland, Germany (ssp hirundo)
Juan Fernández Elipe 10 September 2007 7 years ago 15 sec 4.5
PhotosSee all 120 photos
Adult S.h. longipennis flying, showing the long thin black bill
Locality Xianghai National Nature Reserve, Jilin, China (Northern) (ssp longipennis)
GunnarPettersson 11 May 2011 4 weeks ago ADDED LAST MONTH 4.9
A bird flying with a small fish.
Locality Point Pelee National Park, Leamington, Ontario, Canada
Michel Lamarche 11 May 2009 4 years ago 4.8
Locality Zagreb County, Croatia (ssp hirundo)
spiljar 6 June 2011 23 weeks ago 4.8
adulto sobre un poste
Locality Riet Vell Reserve, Ebro Delta, Tarragona Province, Catalonia, Spain (ssp hirundo)
J. Barreda 27 June 2012 16 weeks ago 4.7
Juvenile coming up from dive
Locality Varberg, Halland County, Sweden
GunnarPettersson 7 September 2006 2 weeks ago ADDED LAST MONTH 4.7
Locality Zaymishche, Klintsy, Bryansk Oblast, Western Russia, Russia
Sergey Shursha 4 May 2013 21 weeks ago 4.5
Voices of birds. Locality Axios Delta, Central Macedonia Region, Greece
Theo Mamais 20 April 2008 2 years ago 5
Two birds flying together. Locality Essonne, Île-de-France, France
Julien Rochefort 5 July 2007 5 years ago 4
Flight calls, small flock (5 birds). Locality Kirkkonummi, Southern Finland Province, Finland
Eetu Paljakka 14 May 2015 4 days ago ADDED LAST WEEK 3
Birds calling while roosting on rocks with Crested Terns. Locality Western Treatment Plant, Werribee, Victoria, Australia
Nick Talbot 18 February 2013 2 years ago 2
Click to play
A bird calling while fishing. Locality Rudong, Jiangsu, China (Northern)
Eric Roualet 23 June 2014 44 weeks ago 0