Swallows and Martins (Hirundinidae)

Collared Sand Martin (Riparia riparia) - HBW 9, p. 647

French: Hirondelle de rivage German: Uferschwalbe Spanish: Avión Zapador
Other common names: Common/European/Gorgeted Sand Martin; Bank Swallow (America)

Taxonomy: Hirundo riparia Linnaeus, 1758, Europe = Sweden.
Forms a superspecies with R. paludicola, R. congica and R. diluta. Until recently considered conspecific with last, but the two differ in plumage and voice, and occur in separate breeding colonies in wide area of sympatry (full extent of which not yet clear). Described race kolymensis (E Siberia) merged with nominate and taczanowskii (L Baikal area and C Mongolia E to Ussuriland) with ijimae, but both possibly distinguishable; proposed taxon dolgushini (from SE Kazakhstan) is synonym of innominata. North American populations sometimes co.. View all taxonomy...

Taxonomy: Hirundo riparia Linnaeus, 1758, Europe = Sweden.
Forms a superspecies with R. paludicola, R. congica and R. diluta. Until recently considered conspecific with last, but the two differ in plumage and voice, and occur in separate breeding colonies in wide area of sympatry (full extent of which not yet clear). Described race kolymensis (E Siberia) merged with nominate and taczanowskii (L Baikal area and C Mongolia E to Ussuriland) with ijimae, but both possibly distinguishable; proposed taxon dolgushini (from SE Kazakhstan) is synonym of innominata. North American populations sometimes considered to represent a separate, supposedly smaller, race maximiliani, but differences from Eurasian birds negligible. Five subspecies recognized.

Subspecies and Distribution:

  • riparia (Linnaeus, 1758) - North America from W & C Alaska and Canada (N Yukon, NW & SC Mackenzie and N Saskatchewan E to S Labrador and SW Newfoundland) S in USA to C California, W Nevada, Utah, N & C New Mexico, NE Oklahoma, N Alabama, C West Virginia, E Virginia, and casually NW N Carolina and SC South Carolina, also SC Texas and NE Mexico (N Nuevo Léon, N Tamaulipas); Eurasia from Ireland, Britain and N Scandinavia E through Siberia (E to about R Kolyma and Kamchatka), S to N Mediterranean, Turkey, Syria, Iraq, SW Iran and C Asia; has bred locally in NW Africa. Winters South America and Africa.
  • innominata Zarudny, 1916 - SE Kazakhstan; may winter in Africa or in SW or S Asia.
  • ijimae (Lönnberg, 1908) - L Baikal area and C Mongolia E to Sakhalin, N Japan (Hokkaido) and Kuril Is; reported as breeding also in NE India (Assam), but review required. Winters SE Asia, including Philippines.

     See all 5 subspecies
  • riparia (Linnaeus, 1758) - North America from W & C Alaska and Canada (N Yukon, NW & SC Mackenzie and N Saskatchewan E to S Labrador and SW Newfoundland) S in USA to C California, W Nevada, Utah, N & C New Mexico, NE Oklahoma, N Alabama, C West Virginia, E Virginia, and casually NW N Carolina and SC South Carolina, also SC Texas and NE Mexico (N Nuevo Léon, N Tamaulipas); Eurasia from Ireland, Britain and N Scandinavia E through Siberia (E to about R Kolyma and Kamchatka), S to N Mediterranean, Turkey, Syria, Iraq, SW Iran and C Asia; has bred locally in NW Africa. Winters South America and Africa.
  • innominata Zarudny, 1916 - SE Kazakhstan; may winter in Africa or in SW or S Asia.
  • ijimae (Lönnberg, 1908) - L Baikal area and C Mongolia E to Sakhalin, N Japan (Hokkaido) and Kuril Is; reported as breeding also in NE India (Assam), but review required. Winters SE Asia, including Philippines.
  • shelleyi (Sharpe, 1885) - Egypt (Nile Valley); winters S to Sudan and Eritrea.
  • eilata Shirihai & Colston, 1992 - breeding range not known; recorded on passage in Israel.