Cardinals (Cardinalidae)

Blue Grosbeak (Passerina caerulea) - HBW 16, p. 424

French: Guiraca bleu German: Azurfink Spanish: Azulillo Grande

Taxonomy: Loxia caerulea Linnaeus, 1758, South Carolina, USA.
Genus sometimes placed in family Emberizidae. This species formerly placed in monotypic genus Guiraca. Race deltarhyncha intergrades with lazula in Guatemala; former rather poorly differentiated, and sometimes synonymized with eurhyncha. Proposed race mesophila (Texas) included within nominate. Seven subspecies recognized.

Subspecies and Distribution:

  • salicaria (Grinnell, 1911) - breeds SW USA (C & S California, WC Nevada and SW Arizona) and extreme NW Mexico (NW Baja California); migrates to S Baja California and W Mexico (S Sonora S to Guerrero and Morelos).
  • interfusa (Dwight & Griscom, 1927) - breeds W USA (S South Dakota S to Arizona and New Mexico) and N Mexico (C Sinaloa, Durango and N Coahuila); migrates to W Mexico (Sonora and Durango) S to Honduras.
  • caerulea (Linnaeus, 1758) - breeds E USA from Kansas, Kentucky, SE Pennsylvania and S New Jersey S to C & S Texas, S Louisiana, C Alabama and C Florida; migrates to region from E & S Mexico S to Panama.

     See all 7 subspecies
  • salicaria (Grinnell, 1911) - breeds SW USA (C & S California, WC Nevada and SW Arizona) and extreme NW Mexico (NW Baja California); migrates to S Baja California and W Mexico (S Sonora S to Guerrero and Morelos).
  • interfusa (Dwight & Griscom, 1927) - breeds W USA (S South Dakota S to Arizona and New Mexico) and N Mexico (C Sinaloa, Durango and N Coahuila); migrates to W Mexico (Sonora and Durango) S to Honduras.
  • caerulea (Linnaeus, 1758) - breeds E USA from Kansas, Kentucky, SE Pennsylvania and S New Jersey S to C & S Texas, S Louisiana, C Alabama and C Florida; migrates to region from E & S Mexico S to Panama.
  • eurhyncha (Coues, 1874) - C & S Mexico from S Tamaulipas S to Oaxaca.
  • deltarhyncha (van Rossem, 1938) - Pacific slope in Mexico from S Sonora S to Guerrero.
  • chiapensis (Nelson, 1898) - S Mexico (E Oaxaca and Chiapas) E to S Guatemala.
  • lazula (Lesson, 1842) - S Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras S through Pacific drainage to NW Costa Rica.