Common Tern (Sterna hirundo) - HBW 3, p. 652
French: Sterne pierregarin
Spanish: Charrán Común
Taxonomy: Sterna Hirundo Linnaeus, 1758, Sweden.
In North America, genetic studies of populations in Minnesota and Wisconsin and ringing studies in NE USA reveal high degree of gene flow, despite colony site tenacity. C Asian minussensis often considered to be no more than a hybrid form between nominate hirundo and longipennis. Four subspecies normally recognized.
Subspecies and Distribution:
- hirundo Linnaeus, 1758 - North America to N South America, Atlantic islands, Europe, N Africa (Tunisia) and W Africa (Mauritania, Senegal, erratically Nigeria), through Middle East and Black and Caspian Seas to Yenisey Valley; winters S of Tropic of Cancer.
- minussensis Sushkin, 1925 - C Asia through Transbaikalia to N Mongolia and S Tibet; winters mainly N Indian Ocean.
- tibetana Saunders, 1876 - W Mongolia S to Kashmir, Tibet and Sichuan, at high altitudes; winters mostly E Indian Ocean.
- longipennis Nordmann, 1835 - NE Siberia S to NE China (C Heilongjiang to Inner Mongolia and Shanxi); winters SE Asia to Australia.
- Least Concern Enlarge map
VideosSee all 62 videos
Two different pairs defending their territory. Locality Texel, North Holland Province, Netherlands
Yoel Jimenez 19 May 2012 50 weeks ago 35 sec 4.6
An adult bird eating a fish. Locality Parikkala, Southern Finland Province, Finland
Javier Ortas 24 July 2010 2 years ago 30 sec 4.6
A chick on the ground being feed by an adult bird. Locality Parikkala, Southern Finland Province, Finland
Javier Ortas 24 July 2010 2 years ago 41 sec 4.6
A pair mating Locality Siikalahti Wetland Nature Reserve, Parikkala, Southern Finland Province, Finland (ssp hirundo)
herve jacob 5 June 2010 2 years ago 48 sec 4.5
A flock of around 25 individuals resting on the beach Locality Helgoland, Germany (ssp hirundo)
Juan Fernández Elipe 10 September 2007 5 years ago 15 sec 4.5
An adult bird incubating and a general view of its breeding area Locality El Fangar, Ebro Delta, Tarragona Province, Catalonia, Spain (ssp hirundo)
Alex García · Videoaves 30 June 2007 5 years ago 16 sec 4.3
PhotosSee all 62 photos
A bird flying with a small fish.
Locality Point Pelee National Park, Leamington, Ontario, Canada
Michel Lamarche 11 May 2009 2 years ago 4.7
Adult bird in flight carrying a fish to its chicks.
Locality Katinger Watt, Dithmarschen, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany
Martin Främke 8 August 2012 22 weeks ago 4.3
An adult with a fish.
Locality Vorarlberg State, Austria (ssp hirundo)
Fran Trabalon 27 July 2012 1 year ago 4.3
A female begging for food.
Locality Mokbaai, Texel, North Holland Province, Netherlands
David Lingard 5 May 2012 1 year ago 4.2
A recently fledged Common Tern being fed by one of the parents
Locality Rotterdam, South Holland Province, Netherlands (ssp hirundo)
Gerard Visser 20 July 2011 1 year ago 4.2
perched on beach
Locality Currumbin Beach, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia (ssp longipennis)
Mat Gilfedder 30 January 2010 3 years ago 4.1
Voices of birds. Locality Axios Delta, Central Macedonia Region, Greece
Theo Mamais 20 April 2008 28 weeks ago 5
Two birds flying together. Locality Essonne, Île-de-France, France
Julien Rochefort 5 July 2007 3 years ago 4
Birds calling while roosting on rocks with Crested Terns. Locality Western Treatment Plant, Werribee, Victoria, Australia
Nick Talbot 18 February 2013 8 weeks ago 0